Piazza della Repubblica
Where today is the piazza, in roman times stood the hole of the city, with the Temple of Jupiter and a column at the intersection of the two main streets, cardo and decumanus (respectively: the axis via degli Speziali-via Strozzi and Via Calimala-via Roma). In the Middle Ages to the hole is sovrappose the Mercato Vecchio, with its huts, churches, towers, loggias, department stores and shops that gathered around the column (since then column of the market), surmounted by a statue of Abundance, more times replaced. In 800, after an outbreak of cholera, the Municipality decided to erase centuries of "squalor" (as reads the plaque on the arch), but also of life and popular architecture, and demolished the whole district. In their place, the anonymous and pompous architectures of piazza Vittorio Eman
From Piazza della Repubblica, Via Pellicceria (the street with its arcades) you arrive to the Palagio the captains of Parte Guelfa. The building stands in the small square of Parte Guelfa, one of the most picturesque places of medieval Florence. Built in the XIV century, the palace has a small graceful facade with external scale; it was enlarged in the 15th century (with interventions also by Brunelleschi) and at the end of XVI, by Vasari. The powerful judiciary that had its headquarters in the palace was established in 1267, when the Guelph won the Ghibellines. To the left of the palazzo, for track Valdilamona, we arrive at the Straw Market, characteristic and popular markets
To the left of Via Por Santa Maria, the road that joins the Straw Market to the Ponte Vecchio, one sees the ancient church of S. Stefano a bridge, in the homonymous square. The building has a simple romanesque facade with portal adorned with colored marbles (late 13th century). The interior has a single nave, suffers of rearrangements of the XVIII C. notch; singular, and very elegant, is the structure of the presbytery, preceded by an original staircase by Buontalenti (1574), flanked by two large altars; beautiful the seventeenth-century choir from rich wooden ceiling; the third altar on the left is a frontal bronze in the Martyrdom of S. Stefano, of the notch.